HIV entry into cells: The role of male circumcision

2. Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Rakwar JP, Mandaliya K, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. (2005). Female-to-male infectivity of HIV-1 among circumcised and uncircumcised Kenyan men. J Infect Dis. 15;191(4):546-53. Epub Jan 18. 3. Bailey RC (2001). Male circumcision as an effective HIV prevention strategy: current evidence. 8th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Foundation for Retrovirology and Human Health http://www.retroconference.org/2001/symsession.cfm? . 4. Buve A. (2002). HIV epidemics in Africa: what explains the variations in HIV prevalence? IUBMB Life. 53(4-5):193-5. 5. Donoval BA, Landay AL, Moses S, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nyagaya EA, MacLean I, Bailey RC. (2006). HIV-1 target cells in foreskins of African men with varying histories of sexually transmitted infections. Am J Clin Pathol. 125(3):386-91. 6. Fink AJ. (1986). A possible explanation for heterosexual male infection with AIDS [letter]. N Engl J Med 315:1167. 7. Geijtenbeek T, Kwon D, Torensma R, et al. (2000). DC-SIGN, a dendritic cell-specific HIV-1 binding protein that enhances trans-infection of T cells. Cell 100: 587-597. 8. Halperin DT, Bailey RC. (1999). Male circumcision and HIV infection: ten years and counting. Lancet 354: 1813-1815. 9. Hu J, Gardner M, Miller C. (2000). Simian immunodeficiency virus rapidly penetrates the cervicovaginal mucosa after intravaginal inoculation and infects intraepithelial dendritic cells. J Virol 74: 6087-6095. 10. Hussain L, Lehner T. (1995). Comparative investigation of Langerhans’ cells and potential receptors for HIV in oral, genitourinary and rectal epithelia. Immunology 85: 475-484. 11. Inungu J, MaloneBeach E, Betts J. (2005). Male circumcision and the risk of HIV infection. AIDS Read. 15(3): 136-7 12. Moses S, Plummer FA, Bradley JE, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nagelkerke NJ, Ronald AR. (1994). The association between lack of male circumcision and risk for HIV infection: a review of the epidemiological data. Sex Transm Dis. 21(4):201-10. 13. Szabo R, Short R. (2000). How does male circumcision protect against HIV infection?. BMJ 320: 1592-1594 14. Spira A, Marx P, Patterson B, et al. (1996). Cellular targets of infection and route of viral dissemination after an intravaginal inoculation of simian immunodeficiency virus into rhesus macaques. J Exp Med 183: 215-225. 15. Statement developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA,) the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the UNAIDS Secretariat, UNAIDS statement on South African trial findings regarding male circumcision and HIV. 26 July 2005, Rio De Janeiro. 16. Van Howe RS, Svoboda JS, Hodges FM. (2005). HIV infection and circumcision: cutting through the hyperbole. 1: J R Soc Health. 125(6):259-65. l Chinsembu is a lecturer in the Department of Biology, University of Namibia, Windhoek. Email: kchinsembu@unam.na

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