Mozambique elections: country shifts back to its roots
The winner of Mozambique’s presidential elections and the country’s next president comes from the northernmost province as the country begins to shift focus to the resource-rich north, and back to its roots.
Filipe Jacinto Nyusi, 55, the Minister of Defence, who won last month’s polls to become the next President of Mozambique, was born at Mueda in the northern province of Cabo Delgado, which borders on southern Tanzania.
Cabo Delgado was the heart and headquarters of the war of liberation in Mozambique (1964-1975), supported by Tanzania. Both countries have recently identified significant reserves of natural gas offshore in the border area, and many strategic minerals are located in the area.
Nyusi was born on 9 February 1959 and brought up in the national liberation movement that won independence from Portuguese colonial rule.
Before he was two years old, an incident occurred in Mueda on 16 June 1960 that was as significant in mobilizing and politicizing Mozambicans as the Sharpeville massacre was for South Africans just three months earlier.
The colonial police fired on unarmed protesters demanding better living conditions and wages on the cotton estates, in what became known as the Mueda massacre. As many as 500 people died, although the exact figures were disputed by the colonial authorities.
Both of Nyusi’s parents were veterans of the war, which was starting at the time he was taken across the nearby Ruvuma River, the boundary with Tanzania, to the Frelimo primary school at Tunduru just across the border.
Tanzania provided shelter for Mozambican refugees and a rear base for the Mozambique Liberation Front (Frelimo) guerrillas, including training and equipment as well as hosting the Liberation Committee of the Organization of African Unity (OAU).
Nyusi is from the Makonde ethnic group, and the Makonde African National Union (later Mozambique African National Union) was one of the first movements formed to demand independence, and one of three parties that came together to form Frelimo in 1962.
Frelimo launched the liberation war from Cabo Delgado on 25 September 1964, and the man credited with firing the first shots is Nyusi’s popular predecessor as Defence Minister, Alberto Chipande, who was appointed by the first President, Samora Machel, at Independence in 1975 and held the position until 1986.
Chipande, who hails from the same province as Nyusi, has been consistently the most popular figure re-elected to the Frelimo Central Committee with the highest number of votes and continues to be an influential member of the top decision-making body, the 17-member Political Commission, as he has been since Independence.
Frelimo guerrillas attacked the Portuguese airbase at Mueda in one of its first major military actions, in 1967, seriously damaging the base, and again in 1972, when all 19 airplanes were destroyed.
Young Filipe Nyusi was able to return home during the war to start his secondary education at the Frelimo school at Mariri in Cabo Delgado, by then a liberated zone, and finished later at the Samora Machel Secondary School in Beira, after Independence was achieved on 25 June 1975.
He later earned a degree in mechanical engineering at a military academy in Czechoslovakia, completing in 1990, and returned home to join the national ports and rail company, CFM, becoming Executive Director of CFM Norte from 1995-2007, during a period when Guebuza was Minister of Transport.
He is the first President of Mozambique to originate from the north of the vast country that stretches 2,470 kilometres along the south-east coast of Africa between the United Republic of Tanzania and South Africa, although President Armando Guebuza, from the south, also grew up in the north and fought in the liberation war.
Nyusi was appointed by Guebuza as Minister of Defence in 2008, and elected to the party central committee in 2012.
Selected by the Central Committee of Frelimo in early March, from among five contenders to be their presidential candidate, Nyusi had the closest links to the liberation struggle, although this is the first post-war transition and none of them actually fought in the war.
Three candidates had been pre-selected, including Nyusi, but a significant sector of the party, including the war veterans, argued that other candidates should not be excluded, and also called for the restructuring of the Frelimo secretariat.
“The veterans think it necessary that we should have a strong party and a strong secretariat,” a spokesperson said, adding that a strong secretariat would raise morale within the party and “would be able to mobilize the people so that Frelimo wins the elections.”
This had the effect of ensuring a clear and transparent contest within the Frelimo party, won handily by Nyusi with two-thirds of the vote.
The Frelimo Secretary-General, Filipe Paunde, resigned following his defence of the pre-candidates system and the Central Committee replaced him with Eliseu Machava, the Governor of the same Cabo Delgado province.
Cabo Delgado province, which ignited the liberation war more than 50 years ago, and became the dry grass that fuelled its rapid expansion, is now the site of a more recent discovery – 80 trillion cubic feet of natural gas discovered off the coast, acknowledged as the largest natural gas find of the last decade.
This double emphasis on Cabo Delgado and its attendant focus on the twin values of renewal of the liberation struggle coupled with post-veteran leadership set the tone for Frelimo’s election campaign, causing one commentator to pronounce that, although the time was short to introduce a new leader, with just eight months to election day, “Frelimo has likely won the election with these decisions taken in the first days of March.”
The commission reported a landslide victory for the former defence minister, who garnered 57 percent of the vote, which is however down from the 75 percent achieved by his popular predecessor in 2009.
His nearest rival Afonso Dhlakama of the former rebel Renamo party won 37 percent, up from 16 percent in 2009.
Frelimo did well in the north and the south as expected, while the opposition Renamo and MDM did better in the centre of the country.
The Frelimo vote is also down and they will have fewer seats in parliament, while the Renamo party of Afonso Dhlakama will have more than previously. Frelimo won 144 seats in Parliament, which was 47 seats down than in 2009 while Renamo increased its seats to 89 from 51 in 2009.
The third main party, the Mozambique Democratic Movement (MDM) also got more seats this year when it won 17 seats compared to eight seats in 2009.
The presidential candidates for Frelimo and Renamo both gained a higher percentage of votes than their respective parties, while the MDM leader, Daviz Simango, proved less popular than his party.
Simango is the Mayor of Beira, but Renamo did much better in the city than MDM.
Some commentators have suggested that Dhlakama’s sabotage activities in the centre of the country over the past two years were a successful election ploy.
As expected, the northern and southern provinces were won handily by Nyussi and Frelimo, while Dhlakama and Renamo won more votes in the north-central and centre as well as the central cities of Beira and Chimoio.
The results of the elections on 15 October are now official and Nyusi gained enough votes consistently across the provinces to become the next President of Mozambique when President Armando Guebuza stands down early next year. –sardc.net